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Monday, July 26, 2010

Ozark Mountain Highroad Time Trial

approximate location of the time trial



Note:  the below video has music embedded in it that was created by me.  It is neither the worst or the best.  Because of copyright laws I can not embed cool copyrighted music, so this was the best that I could do. That was until now.  Sorta.  On this blog you can click the sound icon on the control panel of my video and mute it.  Then select one of the cool copyrighted tunes from my ipod gadget that I have embedded on the right side of the blog.  It is extremely cool and the price is right....... free.  Enjoy!
 
Here's my video clip that shows the time trial course using Google Earth.  It gives the perspective that the course was indeed hilly, but unless you ride it, you can't fully appreciate it's undulations.  My maximum speed was 50.9 miles per hour.  Over all my average speed was 25mph over the 14 mile out and back course.  My average wattage was 297 which includes averaging in my zero wattages (or coasting).  Basically once a bike is going over 40mph down a hill pedaling is of no real value other than soft pedaling in order to keep the legs loose.  I'm going to guess my normalized power would be around 355 or so.

Oh, I almost left out a critical point.  It was damn hot.  Around 96 degrees.  My chart below shows a  standing radiant temperature of 108.7 degrees.  Once I started riding it dropped to around 98 or so.   

I placed 2nd to Brad Huff (pro rider for team Jelly Belly) who put 20 seconds on me.   The results are here.


standard tt position
Turning around

climbing perspective
nearing the finish









 Lastly I am adding a short audio clip that is to serve as a warning to all who travel with and sleep anywhere within 30 meters of my teammate (and all around good sport) Benji Bockting.  Luckily for me I was able to find my earplugs after a wake up call.

I really don't want everyone who reads this blog to think that Benji is just a snorer.  Oh he is soooo much more than that.  I can tell you personally that he does a mean interpretation of James Brown.

Here's what the Benji has to say on the topic:


"just to put it simple there is only one me.
i consider myself a unique mix of rural and urban landscapes. i may have a more urban sense of style but i see more cows and other types of livestock in a week than most "cowboys" do all year.
since i rode my bicycle nearly 3000 this year i have a lot of time to think and ponder the realities of life what is in it, what it can become. this may seem strange to many people but my riding has opened my eyes to the world and wondrous beauty of nature and what a perfect world we live (if we don't mess it up)

and yes i like sheep. ok, some people are into music some are into art some into sports my true meaning of life is with the sheep it is just what i do(in a nonsexual way) this is my calling and they will always be a part of me.

just remember there is more to me than meets the eye.

there are a few things that annoy me in this world and they are: driving vehicles short distances, wasting energy, not questioning authority, people that are hateful to cyclist, people who litter, SUV's, rednecks, ignorance, "clean" humor (aka corny crap that is just stupid), people who call lawn mowers tractors, and rodeo.

also
eat locally produced beef, lamb goat, pasture-raised
poultry and any other food that you consume and keep your dollars within your communities and support the local farmer this will benefit you and your family."


To learn about the best video camera in the world for videoing cycling (which is the cameras that I use for my videos) click here.

Monday, July 19, 2010

Wildwood Time Trial

Here's my watt data from the 20 kilometer time trial on July 17, 2010.  Race RESULTS.

This course was near Babler State Park in St. Louis area.  10k out and back on a VERY snaking road with two true turns separated by a few hundred meters (guessing) and a railroad track near the first.  Over all the road was slightly uphill going out and had a slight headwind as well.  

Here's some of the stats:  19.248 Kilometer in 25minutes 6 seconds, average speed 28.59, average watts 341.6, 514.5 Kj of energy spent, max speed 34.9, max watts 580, the air temperature was in the mid 80's.

Notable points:  My measured distance was 19.248 kilometers on a described 20kilometer course.  I suspect this difference is largely due to my straightening out of the course.  This was a VERY snaking course and by taking straight lines (as opposed to riding parallel to the center line)a rider can significantly shorten the distance of a course and thereby create a faster time.  I rarely, if ever, left my lane to straighten out the course..... it just wasn't safe enough.  The roads turned so much that they frequently disappeared behind trees.  I rode very controlled near my threshold.  This allowed me to have a strong finish.

I didn't video my time trial because I thought it would be boring and I was going to video the circuit race the following day.  I regret this for two reasons.  One the circuit race was canceled due to heavy rains.  The park ranger didn't want the the grass field to get torn up from vehicles parking there (legitimate).  But I especially wished I had a camera to show you the point on my return where I shot between two cars while time trialing.  A state trooper had stopped a car in my lane and just as I was in the process of passing the vehicle in my lane, an on-coming car car meet me at the exact point that I passing the stationary vehicle (with a trooper at the driver's side window.  I dropped my speed from 30mph to about 23mph.  It was still an extremely uncomfortable experience.  I wish I had video that showed the facial expression of the state trooper. 

To learn about the best video camera in the world for videoing cycling (which is the cameras that I use for my videos) click here.

Tuesday, July 13, 2010

How to determine your lactate threshold

What is "Lactate Threshold"?

Lactate threshold (LT) has many names; it is also known as "threshold", anaerobic threshold (AT), maximal lactate steady state (MLSS), or onset of blood threshold (OBLA).  It is the point at which one's body begins to accumulate more lactate acid than it can process/metabolize or expel  during a progressive intensity of exercise.  While in a laboratory setting, LT is measured in terms of the percent of lactic acid in your blood, a good surrogate can be found using your power output (wattage) and/or heart rate (beats per minute or bpm).  This leads us to another term that is commonly used to describe LT in a practical way:  functional threshold power or FTP.  This is the most common term presently used by many cycling coaches to measure, describe and represent what most cyclists are really  concerned with - what maximal power output (or related functional threshold heart rate (FTHR)) can they sustain for an endurance event to produce maximal performance.  Wherever I refer to LT below, for the purposes of this article, any of the terms above (LT, LTP, FTHR, AT, MLSS, OBLA.) can be used interchangeably because they all are measurements of your performance threshold. 

LT is related to the build-up of lactic acid during exercise - along with other biochemical events that occur in the muscle -  that serves as a fatigue marker.  Physical efforts above LT progressively lead to a reduction and eventual shutdown of your ability to further physically exert yourself, whereas efforts below LT can be generally maintained for considerably long periods (from one to several hours).

The Importance of Knowing Your Lactate Threshold

You may ask yourself, "Why would I want to know my lactate threshold?"  If you are a recreational rider, knowing your LT may be of no more value than knowing your IQ score. However, if you are a competitive cyclist and/or you are following a comprehensive training program, it would be extremely valuable to know where your LT lands on the heart rate and power charts.  A higher lactate threshold will allow you to work harder and/or longer before you fatigue.  For longer time trials, you can monitor your heart rate and or power, and maximize your performance by adjusting your speed by cadence and gear selection in order to stay at your known threshold (wattage and/or heart rate).  The strongest/fittest rider who rides at their LT will almost always win a time trial. For criteriums and road races, while race strategy is key, building fitness by raising your lactate threshold can mean the difference between staying with the pack, or being dropped off the back.
                                                                                                                     
If you don’t know your threshold, it’s difficult to know if you are optimizing your training.  Knowing your LT or FTP and periodically measuring it is extremely important for making sure your training program is effective in terms of improving your endurance.  In addition, when you accumulate this data over time, you can analyze it to determine any changes in your conditioning.

How to Determine Your Lactate Threshold

Below are four methods for determining your LT or FTP.  In order to get the best results you should not be fatigued (at least 3 days from last interval session), you should be well hydrated and you should be prepared nutritionally (eat properly and timely).

Method 1:  Exercise Laboratory

One way to determine your lactate threshold is in a laboratory setting, where blood samples can be drawn during exercise to determine LT and correlated  to a heart rate and wattage output.  This method is complicated and the results are dependent on the physiologist/laboratory technician's design protocols and interpretation of data.   Additionally,  most people don't have access to a laboratory for testing.  However, you are in luck - there are a few simple, cost-effective alternatives to estimate your LT.

Method 2:  The 40 kilometer Time Trial

This method requires a long, flatish course (extremely hilly courses are not suitable), and either a heart rate monitor and/or a watt meter.   In my experience, riding  a 40 kilometer, flat time trial is close to ideal for this.  First, it is long enough so that you simply can not stay above your LT without dropping back down to recover and ride at your actual threshold.   This allows averaging to give a more accurate number. Secondly, the 40 kilometer timetrial is typically the standard for most state and national championships. Third, I find that this distance is long enough to be a complete workout in itself.

Warm up appropriately.   Ride easy for 20-30 minutes, then follow this with a few efforts at or just below your expected time trial effort.  This isn't hard science.  You can do 4 leg openers. These should last about 3 minutes each. Over the first minute, gradually bring yourself up to a pace that you believe you can sustain for your time trial. Hold it there for one or two minutes and over the last minute bring your effort back down to an easy/moderate pace. Recover 5 minutes and repeat. Your effort should be just hard enough to get your heart rate up and a sweat going, but not tax your system or require any significant recovery time.  Or you can do two 5-minute efforts with five minute recovery between and just before starting the actual time trial.

Make sure you 'zero' your watt meter before starting,  then do your best effort.  Later you can upload the power data and use your preferred power software to see your average wattage and heart rate. 

If you only have a heart rate monitor, it must have the ability to download the data.  There is too much change and variation over a 40 kilometer effort to accurately estimate the average heart rate from memory. 


Heart rate data is valuable information and it generally tracks linearly in relation to effort and aerobic efficiency.  However, it isn't instantaneously responsive to exercise stimuli and doesn't have the same amount of predictability and reliability that power meters do or laboratory gas analyzers.  Heart rate tends to elevate with temperature, dehydration, certain medications, caffeine, decreased fitness, and is also effected by the time of last meal, illness, heat adaption, and current fitness level as well as having a delayed response to exercise stimuli.  With that understood and accounted for, heart rate data becomes more meaningful as I will describe later.

Method 3:  25-minute time trial

An alternative to the 40k method is to use a static time rather than distance; this method also requires the use of a power meter attached to your bicycle and/or a heart-rate monitor that can record and transfer data.

Begin by warming up as described earlier in this article, then ride a 25 minute flat time trial course at your maximum controlled effort.   Record the last twenty minutes of the ride on either your heart-rate monitor or power meter.  To estimate your LT point, subtract 5% from the average power and/or heart rate data during this period.

Method 4:  The Conconi Test

A fourth way to estimate your LT is the Conconi Test.  This method requires the use of a power meter attached to your bicycle and a heart-rate monitor.  Alternatively, you may be able to use a stationary trainer that is appropriately outfitted.  The premise of this test is that below you LT, there is a linear relationship between wattage and heart rate.  After reaching LT, this relationship begins to flatten when graphed.  If you incrementally increase wattage over time and plot this against the resulting change in heart rate on  X and Y axes, respectively, you will observe a point where it is no longer linear.  That point of deflection is your LT.

Example of the Conconi Test  

In 1995, I recorded data for a Conconi test at my University gym using a simple polar heart-rate monitor and a stationary trainer with digital watt resistance.  I  increased my effort by 25 watts every minute. and wrote down my heart rate just after increasing the wattage (the machine maxed out at 400 watts).  My data is charted below (Figure 1):

Figure 1:  1995 Conconi Test

Based on this chart, my predicted lactate threshold occurred at a heart rate of 169 bpm and at a power output of 325 watts (not bad for a Category a 4 rider... upgrading soon followed). To see predicted power outputs for different categories of racers - ranging all the way from untrained cyclists all the way to world class cyclists - see my article on the "Comparative Measurements of Maximal Outputs for Cyclists".

There is some criticism that the Conconi Test only works with certain fit athletes, for whom LT is close to their maximum heart rate.  Here are links (1 and 2 ) to two studies suggesting that Conconi's test simply isn't a good method to predict LT.  There are studies that say the opposite as well.

To achieve an accurate Conconi test result, it is very important to note that several rules must be followed:
     1. be rested (fatigue affects heart rate);
     2. you should eat in a manor appropriate with racing (meal 3-4 hours previous to test);
     3. you should perform the test in a temperate environment and or use cooling fans (rising core-      temperature can create upward heart rate drift);
     4. You should not consume caffeine within a few hours of testing (also raises hr) or it should be mitigated by consuming the same amount of caffeine at the same time frame before testing for all tests and all future performances;
     5. You should be hydrated (dehydration causes elevated hr).

I would also suggest that you thoroughly warm-up prior to the test, to account for any heart rate drift that will occur as your core temperature rises from exercise.  I would also suggest that each new wattage be maintained for  2-minutes before changing to a new wattage to allow your heart rate to stabilize at a fixed effort (there's a delay in heart rate response to increased wattage).    While this will tend to prevent an athlete from going much higher than threshold, the purpose of this test is only for estimating LT and not VO2max.  Any additional wattage/load added over LT will hopefully cause the heart rate to drift right off the previous trend of a linear relationship between wattage and heart rate.

Below (Figure 2) is  data from a more recent Conconi Test, using my road bike on a stationary trainer.  It illustrates the strong correlation between exertion and heart rate.  However, because I broke a few of the above rules, (such as being not rested, and I had consumed caffeine proximal to the test), it also demonstrates how these factors can render the Conconi test inconclusive. 

Note-worthy is that the slope of the plot line is almost identical to the slope of my chart 15 years previous.  This should be true for most athletic individuals.  As a person improves their conditioning  the line shifts to the right (more wattage at the same heart rate).  A very unfit person will have a relatively steep slope when compared to a later slope after some gain some fitness.  Further fitness typically shows a shift of the slope to the right.  You can compare Conconi tests from different periods and see fitness changes at a glance when layed on top of each other.

Figure 2:  2010 Conconi Test

I the graph in Figure 2 (above) from the data above from my SRM software which I downloaded from my watt meter device, shown below in Figure 3.
Figure 3:  2010 Wattage data Conconi test using SRM

The vertical lines represent one-minute increments.  Wattage is graphed in green and heart rate is the brown stair-stepping line.  It is worth noting that the wattage has some up and down movement  (+/- 5 watts).  In my defense, it is hard to ride at an exact specific wattage for any length of time.  This is another reason that I suggest 2-minute intervals rather than one minute intervals, to allow heart rate stabilization to each new work load.  Additionally, my watt monitor displayed 3 cadence smoothing ( it displayed wattage as an average of 3 rotations of the crank)  which made my wattage appear much more steady while riding than is shown in Figure 3.  

Note:  The Conconi test works best if you can maintain a consistent cadence throughout all the tests. Cadence can affect heartrate as a function of performance efficiency.    In my test shown in Figure 3 (above), I was able to maintain a cadence of 87 to 93 rpm throughout the test except at the end with wattages of 385 and 400, where I had to increase my cadence to 98 and 100 rpm accordingly.  This may have negatively affected this Conconi test because heart rate does tend to rise with performance inefficiencies.   From careful evaluation I have determined that I am slightly more efficient with a cadence in the low 80s when riding at my threshold.   This can be done by riding at your functional threshold power (wattage at LT) at different cadences (70, 80, 90, 100rpm) for several minutes each with a 4 minute recovery period between and noting which cadence produced the lowest heart rate.   If you would like to learn more details about what the ideal cadence is for competitive cyclists please click here and read my post on this subject.

Figure 4: SRM Conconi analysis
The final chart (Figure 4) is also from my SRM software.  I have included it because it is rather interesting.  The squiggly line is the exact same data as Figure 3, only graphed in a continuous line on an X and Y axis, starting with yellow and changing to brown, green, aqua, blue, and finally ending in purple.  The only significance of the color change is help see the data change over time during the test.   SRM's  Conconi analysis view does not run the test for you, only the data analysis.

I think it is amusing that SRM appears to think that the Conconi test is worthy enough to include it in their software.

Please check back in another 15 years for another watt/heartrate chart update.   I predict a shift back to the left.  

To learn about the best video camera in the world for videoing cycling (which is the cameras that I use for my videos) click here.



Monday, July 5, 2010

What, when and how to eat for cycling performance

I am the world's leading authority on diet.  If you Google diet and cycling you will almost certainly find links supporting this, including many mentions of my award winning research papers on this topic.  Oh yeah, I also invented the internet

Ok, I am just kidding.  Diet's not quite my schtick.  I used to live off of McDonalds, Snicker bars and Cokes and was still thin and fit.  I no longer eat this way, but truthfully I think that a young and healthy cyclist can occasionally consume lots of food products that sedentary folks generally shouldn't.

Here's what I do.  Typically I eat my meal about 3-4 hours before a race.  I tend to eat heavier on the carbohydrate side of things, such as bread and pastas, pastries, cakes, pancakes, fresh fruit, jelly beans etc.  I also would eat some meat, but not a large quantity.  Basically, I would eat practically anything I want, and drink a good volume of water  or milk (2 normal glasses).

As the race approaches I tend to lightly snack on foods that I believe to be easily digestible such as bananas, or fig bars etc.  Energy bars or GU would be fine.

If a race is shorter than 2 hours I don't eat during the event.  I do drink as much water as I reasonably can (at least one bottle per hour or more).  Body glucose stores are generally adequate for exercise up to 2 hours.   Dehydration due to sweating can cause poor performance pretty quickly.  Hydration is extremely important.  I would also recommend drinking fluids with an electrolyte supplement for events over an hour long, especially in hot environments. Drinking large amounts of plain water can cause cramping (technically you can kill yourself by over hydration)

Road races are generally much longer than 2 hours and require calorie consumption.  I eat GU at the rate of one per every 30 minutes.  This will only supply 200 calories per hour and I can burn up to 700-1000 calories per hour.  The problem is that the human body can not replace calories as usable muscle fuel as fast as it uses or burns it.   Basically 300 or so calories is the maximal level of absorbable calories that a body can process  (body mass is a factor for quantity absorbed).  Greater amounts can cause stomach pain and also mess with hydration levels due to problems related to osmolality conditions.  Clearly the pre-race meal is critical for road races.  For a good description of the Basic of Nutrition Physiology click this link.

I also recommend eating immediately following exercise. There's a fancy name for what is happening with your body following exercise called "glycogen super-compensation".  In short your body is like a sponge that will suck up glycogen much faster immediately following exercise than say 30 minutes later when the window for glycogen super-compensation closes.  Eating immediately following exercise leads to quicker recover than waiting more than 30 minutes.  Also extremely important is consuming water until your urine stream returns to a lightly colored appearance (dark urine is a sign of dehydration).  Hydration is also extremely important for speedy recovery.  I usually add electrolytes to my drinks following long exertions.   

If you want to learn  alot about nutrition I recommend this the following link to a site called Cycling Performance Tips created by Richard Rafoth, MD (gastroenterologist)




I particularly liked the following and thought it was entirely worth copying and sharing:

Bottom Line:

"1.  Eat breakfast
2. Eat the bulk of your carbohydrates at breakfast and lunch
3. Take those vitamins with a glass of cranberry juice.
4. Take a multivitamin daily - and be sure it has 800 units of vitamin D; add in 1 gram of fish oil as a capsule and also magnesium supplements
5. Eliminate as much as reasonable all white flour, white rice, and potatoes - use brown rice and whole grain breads.
6. Eat a cooked whole grain cereal or steel rolled oats when possible for breakfast (cold cereals are not comparable, even granolas).
7. Use only low fat milk.
8. Peanut butter on a piece of 100% whole grain toast is a quick breakfast
9. A couple of cups of coffee a day can be a good thing - even three or four
10. A snack during the day might be a handful of almonds (raw or at least not roasted in transfats).
11. 1 alcoholic drink a day - make it red wine if possible
12. Use olive oil whenever feasible (canola is second)
13. The more vegetables the better.
14. Sweets only for special occasions - grab the dark chocolate if you have it handy
15. Have fish as often as possible
16. Blue cheese and other aged cheeses are better than processed cheeses
17. Fat Calories are not necessarily bad - even if you want to lose weight - and may be better than an equivalent number of CHO calories"

To learn about the best video camera in the world for videoing cycling (which is the cameras that I use for my videos) click here.

Friday, July 2, 2010

Best Video Card to Record on



What is the best SDHC card to use for the HD Hero camera?  Answer:  Kingston class 4 SDHC is the best that I have tested and the best price.

I tested a Kingston SDHC class 4, 32GB card vs a SanDisk Extreme SDHC  class 10, 8GB card using identical cameras under the exact same conditions.

I tested both low light and normal lighting on a cloudless day at Rockbridge State Park.   I rode some very bumpy sections to try to produce "extreme conditions".

GoPro recommends using at least a class 4 card.  Early on I used a class 2 card (not knowing better) during cold temperatures (7 degrees above zero) and one of my files was corrupted.

GoPro sells the Kingston card and it is the best price that I have found for that brand with a 32GB memory for $99.  The SanDisk class 10 card cost $79.99 and only had 8GB memory.  In my opinion, the SanDisk did not produce as good an image as the Kingston card did.

I recommend the Kingston from GoPro.  You can of course buy this and any GoPro product by clicking the HD Hero links at the top and side of my blog.

Below is some responses to my video that is valuable:

Erm - you don't really try to tell me the IMAGE QUALITY was affected by the type of sd card? If there were drop outs or broken / aborted recordings you might blame the sd card. But a sd card can not affect the image quality.
Thanks philfieger, I wish that you were one of the sales persons at Best Buy who could have told me this when I questioned them.  Also I wish you could have put this information on the packaging of the product that I purchased.   

The SanDisk Extreme SDHC  Card packaging says that, "SanDisk proprietary Enhanced Super-Parallel Processing (ESP) technology delivers extreme performance ideal for continuous burst shooting, high definition video, and faster data transfer to computer" .  Also on the front of the packaging is, "Extreme performance for extreme conditions".

I thought that violent jarring/bouncing/shaking of the camera caused from  the terrain would qualify for extreme conditions.  As far as I know now, only high and low temperatures qualify for extreme conditions. 

How could I have made this mistake?  I must be a complete moron.  

Below is some additional information of correction for myself and whoever needs it.

To learn about the best video camera in the world for videoing cycling (which is the cameras that I use for my videos) click here. 



How many ways might I mount the..........



custom mount under handle bars
use of metal hanger and rubber bands for stabilization on multiple extensions (custom set up)

seat post mount
chest mount

head harness mount
head harness mount

suction mount
adhesive mounts etc.
tripod mount
vented helmet mount
view of quick release mount

There are a plethora of ways to mount a Hero HD camera.  For road racing I am currently using the method shown here.  Only the front has a few add-ons.  I added a highly bent coat hanger to provide additional support for the diagonal arm that extends from it's mount between the headset and the stem (around a carbon washer).  The hanger is secured to the handlebars with electrical tape.  This brace adds more security and reduces slight bouncing of the camera during road shock.  Additionally, I have added some rubber bands to provide some downward pull.  I have found that the more secure the camera is, the better the video quality.

The mounts shown above include the handlebar seat post mount ($19.99 the links are my video example of the preceding mount), the suction cup mount ($29.99), the head strap mount ($14.99), the chest mount harness ($39.99), the tripod mount ($7.99), the vented helmet strap mount ($14.99), and the grab bag of mounts ($19.99)

If a person is creative, they can create their own mount from these parts and numerous building materials.  In particular the adhesive mounts can be turned into screw/bolt mounts.  The tripod mount can be adapted to mount to unlimited objects with bolt and clamp systems. 

It should be noted that several of these mounts incorporates a quick release buckle.  This is of course very handy to move about the camera.  I found that these buckles produce clicking noises on the audio.  This can be prevented by applying a small shim in the buckle.    I've read that applying electrical tape to the buckle prior to connection also works.  The video does not seem to be affected by these micro movements.

I can also tell you that the adhesive mounts work extremely well on a smooth clean surface.  I did several races in the rain and the adhesive was unaffected.

If anyone has any questions, send 'em my way and I will try to answer them.  I hope this is helpful to those who requested info on camera mounts. The HD Hero Camera can be purchased for $299 from the manufacturer by clicking on the "Get Yours" button on the ads at the top and right of this blog.

 To learn about the best video camera in the world for videoing cycling (which is the cameras that I use for my videos) click here.

Thursday, July 1, 2010

Webster Grove Criterium


[Special Note:  I have a "Music Player" gadget, 4th down to the right. You may run audio from it or the video as you see fit by pausing the music player or muting the embedded video. Enjoy!]




Here's my video from the Webster Grove Criterium on June 27, 2010 men category 1-3.  The most notable thing about this particular race is not apparent on the video, namely heat, and plenty of it.  The air temperature was about 96 degrees Fahrenheit.

This temperature did not bother me in the slightest because I read and followed my own advice on heat management.   I only wish the race was either hotter or a bit longer.

The race winner was Jonathan Jacob.  He's not shown in the video because he took off in a 2 man break super early.  Eventually he rode solo and lapped the field.

My chase group was completely ineffective at chasing him down.  I don't totally know why.  Perhaps the heat.   It was the shortest and slowest race I've done all season (average speed 25mph).  Forest Park may have been  slower, but I'm not sure.

At anyrate, it was a well run race and I give credit to people who put on this race.




































To learn about the best video camera in the world for videoing cycling (which is the cameras that I use for my videos) click here.

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